Overall, it is clear that the political gap between supporters and opponents of the institutional framework agreement exists not only at the level of political elites, but can also be observed among voters. It should be noted that the two sides not only assess differently the effects of the conclusion and failure of the framework agreement, but also perceive the status quo of current bilateral relations differently. « This concludes negotiations on the draft [framework agreement], » the government said on Wednesday. Expectations about the evolution of bilateral relations after the signing or failure of the institutional framework agreement are very different, as shown by a survey conducted in September 2020 among 1492 respondents by a team of researchers led by Stefanie Walter of the University of Zurich. Respondents were asked to assess the medium-term development of bilateral relations on a scale ranging from 0 (lack of cooperation) to 10 (Switzerland`s accession to the EU). Figures 1 and 2 show the expectations of both parties regarding the development of RELATIONS between the EU and Switzerland in these two scenarios: acceptance (Figure 1) and failure (Figure 2) of the institutional framework agreement. Both sides can count on the patchwork of bilateral agreements, but these agreements will eventually become obsolete, so that Switzerland will not have access to a potential electricity union or other changing areas of the single market. The Federal Council has decided not to sign the INSTA. Negotiations with the EU did not produce the results that Switzerland needed to sign the agreement.
As Switzerland is a direct democracy, any international treaty must be ratified by referendum. But the Swiss public is divided on the issue of instA. This is not surprising, as the views of Swiss voters on the opportunities and risks of the conclusion of the institutional framework agreement and its failure are very different. Both sides only agree that the issue of « framework agreements, yes or no » is of great importance for future bilateral relations. Existing agreements will also expire over time, as in the case of an agreement on transparent cross-border trade in medical devices, which expired this week. Any disagreement as to the interpretation or application of this Agreement shall be settled by means of consultations between the competent authorities. The parallels with Brexit are not only theoretical; the Brexit process has strongly influenced the political process in Switzerland around the institutional framework agreement. The negotiations took place in the shadow of Brexit, the debate on the institutional framework agreement repeatedly referred to Brexit, and the Brexit process itself helped influence the voting intentions of the Swiss electorate on European politics. In this context, it is not surprising that the question of the extent to which the British negotiating strategy should be a model for Switzerland has been hotly debated. Given the different wishes and expectations of the two sides, it is not surprising that both sides also assessed differently the risks of failure of the institutional framework agreement. This Agreement may now be amended by additional arrangements which form an integral part of this Agreement from the date of its entry into force. Such agreements may take effect retroactively if they so provide.
Geneva is home to the World Trade Organization (WTO), several United Nations organizations and other international organizations. A complete list of Switzerland`s trade agreements with other countries in English is available on the website of the Swiss Economic Secretariat (SECO). Bern said there are significant differences on key aspects of the agreement, including the free movement of people, EU citizens` access to Swiss social benefits and state aid. Switzerland is a member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and participated in the negotiations on the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA) with the European Union. It signed the agreement on 2 September. May 1992 and applied for EU membership on 20 May 1992. However, after the Swiss referendum of 6 December 1992, the Swiss government decided to suspend negotiations on EU membership by 50.3% to 49.7%, the Swiss government decided to suspend EU accession negotiations until further notice. These have not resumed and, in 2016, Switzerland officially withdrew its application for EU membership.   The EU and its 27 members are Switzerland`s most important partners. Relations between Switzerland and the EU have developed thanks to an ever closer network of sectoral agreements.
Today, economic relations between the EU and Switzerland are governed by more than 100 bilateral agreements dating back to 1972. They remain in force. These bilateral agreements between the EU and Switzerland are currently managed by around 20 joint committees. The Confederation has recently made several substantial policy shifts, but within the Swiss banking system, specific agreements with the EU on the free movement of workers and the areas of tax evasion have been discussed. This was a consequence of the first Swiss-EU summit in May 2004, at which nine bilateral agreements were signed. Romano Prodi, former president of the European Commission, said the agreements had « brought Switzerland closer to Europe ». Joseph Deiss, from the Swiss Federal Council, said: « We may not be at the centre of Europe, but we are definitely at the heart of Europe. » He continued, « We are entering a new era of relations between our two entities. »  The unilateral behaviour of the European Commission constitutes a clear violation of the MRA, EU law and World Trade Organisation (WTO) law. The MRA is still in force and binding on both parties.
In addition, the European Commission`s position, which was adopted on 26 May 2021 through an « informal communication to stakeholders », has no legal basis in EU law. In addition, the Commission`s action violates several provisions of the WTO agreements. Following the rejection of EEA membership in 1992, Switzerland and the EU agreed on a set of seven sectoral agreements signed in 1999 (known as « Bilateral I » in Switzerland). .